Phospho-ATF2 (Thr71) cellular kit
Total MKK4 Cellular Kit HTRF®
This HTRF kit is designed to monitor the expression level of cellular MKK4, and can be used as a normalization assay for the phospho-MKK4 kit.
- All inclusive kit
- High sensitivity
- Low sample consumption
Cisbio's Total MKK4 cellular assay monitors total MKK4, and can be used as a normalization assay with our phospho-MKK4 kit. This kit is compatible with the buffers from the phospho-MKK4 kit, so the same lysate can be used for analyses of both the phosphorylated and the total protein populations.
Phosphorylation of MKK4 on Serine 257 is induced by various MKKKinases such as TAK1, Tpl2, or ASK1, in response to cellular stresses and proinflammatory cytokines. Once phosphorylated, MKK4 prefentially triggers the activation of JNK which regulates a range of biological processes implicated in tumorigenesis, neurodegenerative disorders, and fibrosis.
- DATA NORMALIZATION
The Total MKK4 assay quantifies the expression level of MKK4 in a cell lysate. Unlike Western Blot, the assay is entirely plate-based and does not require gels, electrophoresis, or transfer. The Total-MKK4 assay uses two labeled antibodies, one coupled to a donor fluorophore and the other to an acceptor. Both antibodies are highly specific for a distinct epitope on the protein. In presence of MKK4 in a cell extract, the addition of these conjugates brings the donor fluorophore into close proximity with the acceptor and thereby generates a FRET signal. Its intensity is directly proportional to the concentration of the protein present in the sample, and provides a means of assessing the protein's expression under a no-wash assay format.
The two-plate protocol involves culturing cells in a 96-well plate before lysis, then transferring lysates to a 384-well low volume detection plate before the addition of Total-STING HTRF detection reagents. This protocol enables the cells' viability and confluence to be monitored.
Human SH-SY5Y cells were plated at 25,000 cells/well in a 96-well plate. After 24 h incubation at 37 °C, 5% CO2, the cells were incubated in differentiation medium containing 10µM of RA for 1 week in the dark. Note that due to the poor stability of RA, cell culture medium containing fresh RA was renewed daily. Once differentiated, SH-SY5Y were stimulated with increasing concentrations of anisomycin for 45 min. Then the medium was removed and 50 µL of supplemented lysis buffer 1X were added. After 30 min lysis at RT under gentle shaking, 16 µL of lysate were transferred into a 384-well low volume white microplate, and 4 µL of the HTRF phospho-MKK4 (Ser257) or total MKK4 detection reagents were added. The HTRF signal was recorded after an overnight incubation.
As described elsewhere, a dose dependent phosphorylation of MKK4 by Ser257 was induced by anisomycin, whereas total MKK4 slightly decreased under the same experimental conditions.
Human SH-SY5Y cells were plated at 400,000 cells/well in a 6-well plate. After 24 h incubation at 37 °C, 5% CO2, the cells were incubated in differentiation medium containing 10 µM of RA for 1 week in the dark. Note that due to the poor stability of RA, cell culture medium containing fresh RA was renewed daily. Once differentiated, SH-SY5Y were stimulated with 0.5 mM of H2O2 for 1h. Then the medium was removed and 500 µL supplemented lysis buffer 1X were added. After 30min lysis at RT under gentle shaking, 16 µL of lysate were transferred into a 384-well low volume white microplate and 4 µL of the HTRF phospho-MKK4 (Ser257) or total MKK4 detection reagents were added. The HTRF signal was recorded after an overnight incubation.
H2O2 induced phosphorylation MKK4 on Ser257 residue, whereas the MKK4 expression level remained almost stable under the same experimental conditions.
Human HepG2 cells were plated at 100,000 cells/well in a 96-well plate. After an incubation of 24 h at 37 °C, 5% CO2, the cells were stimulated with increasing concentrations of anisomycin for 45 min. Then the medium was removed, and 50 µL of supplemented lysis buffer 1X were added. After 30 min lysis at RT under gentle shaking, 16 µL of lysate were transferred into a 384-well low volume white microplate and 4 µL of the HTRF phospho-MKK4 (Ser257) or total MKK4 detection reagents were added. The HTRF signal was recorded after an overnight incubation. The same amount of lysate was analyzed by Western Blot in a side by side experiment.
As shown on the graphs, both HTRF and Western Blot indicated an increase in MKK4 phosphorylation associated with a decrease of MKK4 expression.
The human HepG2 cell line was seeded in a T175 flask and incubated at 37 °C, 5% CO2. The cells were then stimulated with Sorbitol (1 M) for 30 min before lysis.
Serial dilutions of the cell lysate were performed in the supplemented lysis buffer, and 16 µL of each dilution were transferred into a low volume white microplate before the addition of 4 µL of HTRF total MKK4 detection reagents. Equal amounts of lysates were used for a side by side comparison between HTRF and Western Blot.
Using the HTRF total MKK4 assay, 1,250 cells/well were enough to detect a signal while 10,000 cells were needed using Western Blot which relies on an ECL detection. These results demonstrate that the HTRF total MKK4 assay is 8 times more sensitive than the Western Blot.
MKK4 (Mitogen-activated Kinase Kinase 4) is a member of MAP kinase kinase family that is activated by phosphorylation on Ser257 following activation of different MKKKs, for example TAK1 or ASK1, in response to stimuli such as GPCR activation, Growth factors, cellular stresses, or inflammatory cytokines. In turn, activated MKK4 phosphorylates JNK or p38 in order to activate c-jun, p53, or ATF2 and induce inflammation, cell survival/apoptosis, proliferation, or differentiation by regulating gene transcriptions.
Get the brochure about technology comparison. - Brochures
A fun video introducing you to phosphorylation assays with HTRF - Videos
Cell Signaling: Biomarkers, Phospho- & total-protein Assays - Flyers
Physiologically relevant results fo fast flowing research - Flyers
Insider Tips for successful sample treatment - Technical Notes
HTRF and WB compatible guidelines - Technical Notes
Protocol for tumor xenograft analysis with HTRF - Technical Notes
Mastering the art of cell signaling assays optimization - Guides
Multi-tissue cellular modeling and anlysis of insulin signaling - Posters
A solution for phospho-protein analysis in metabolic disorders - Posters
Detailed protocol and direct comparison with WB - Posters
A single technology for 2D cells, 3D cells, and xenograft models - Posters
PI3K/AKT/mTor translational control pathway - Posters
Analysis of a large panel of diverse biological samples and cellular models - Posters
One technology across all samples - Application Notes
Tumor xenograft analysis: HTRF versus Western blot - Application Notes
Valuable guidelines for efficiently analyzing and interpreting results - Application Notes
Increased flexibility of phospho-assays - Application Notes
Analyse of PI3K/AKT/mTor translational control pathway - Application Notes
In collaboration with Bayer - Scientific Presentations
The essential guide for extending your knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases - Guides
Discover this infographic design on neurodegenerative diseases - Infographics
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